Friday, April 1, 2011

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INTERESTING ITEMS FOR BLOG: 4 Second Generation Biofuels

Today, Friday, April 1, 2011, was carried out successfully, the first test flight, commercial aviation in Mexico, bioturbosina activated. The demonstration Airbus left the International Airport of Mexico City and landed on Tuxtla Gutierrez Chiapas , a distance of 803 miles of "green flight."

The feedstock used is oil Jatropha curcas of which is planted 12 500 hectares in seven nurseries and eight orchards in Chiapas, with three thousand producers with capacity of 67 million gallons per year. It

know already conducted pilot flying around the world with airlines such as Japan Airlines, Continental Airlines , Virgin Atlantic and Air New Zealand .


production of renewable energy through liquid fuels from biomass as an alternative to fossil fuels has accelerated dynamics, both by the rising price of oil as its inevitable depletion and from limited sources.

Among the fossil fuels, generating greenhouse gases, oil will run out sooner, while the natural gas and coal will reach for a rather long time. In the long term solar energy and wind predominate as energy sources.

The development of biofuels began in the seventies with the production of bioethanol in Brazil from sugarcane and the United States from corn. The biofuel first generation produced from sugar or starch, vegetable oil and animal fats.

demand first-generation biofuels had a substantial influence on the rise in food prices, caused release of large amounts of CO 2 of soil and biomass existing offsetting advantages the biofuels .

second generation biofuel is a global concept that encompasses a wide variety of fuels and technologies with a large number of variants. The

second-generation biofuels are liquid fuels made from lignocellulosic biomass of plants produced from raw materials that are not food sources can be any type of plant biomass from agricultural or wood waste to energy crops specific.

Their processing requires advanced technologies such as breaking the lignocellulose to get sugar, fermenting it, get bioethanol or thermochemical processes of gasification of biomass for synthetic biodiesel. The lignin After the cellulose is the second most abundant organic substance on the planet.

The advantages of second-generation biofuels are : Low level of emissions with improved environmental impact, higher yields per acre, it is possible to exploit the total biomass, including wastes.

Many scientists believe that algae are the most suitable plants for the production of biofuels they present a high performance, growing up in sewage and sea water and do not need much water, sunlight and CO 2 to grow (they are the fastest growing plants the world).

new crop planting on marginal lands unsuitable for traditional agriculture can ease competition for land.

The three early second generation biofuels are: Do not use food for human beings or animals, no land for growing produce, do not use water for irrigation or human consumption and reduce as a significant major greenhouse gas emissions.

JATROPHA (tempate Sprocket)

Jatropha curcas

Euphorbiacea poisonous native of Mexico (Chiapas) and Central America, with medicinal properties, is grown in tropical and subtropical the world, resistant to drought, can grow in deserts may live up to forty years for its features pesticides and fungicides .

until recently had been their natural vegetative propagation by seed, but now its cultivation, is of particular interest because it is simple, it can thrive in gravel, sand, saline soils, poor and stony, also playing techniques clonales mediante estacas, injertos y acodo aéreo, que permiten la propagación comercial de esta planta.

Sus semillas contienen un aceite no comestible (27 a 40% de petróleo) que puede usarse como combustible en lámparas y motores de combustión, pudiendo convertirse en biodiesel mediante un proceso de transesterificación .

Una hectárea de plantación puede producir de 400 a 600 litros de biodiesel . Las semillas en la zona alrededor de Misantla , Veracruz , son muy apreciadas como alimento una vez que han sido cocidas y asadas, no quedando claro si se debe a la existencia de una nontoxic range or if the cooking process makes them edible.

Bioenergy Program Chiapas biodiesel production co and pinion derivatives, create jobs and allow the use of land currently idle and unproductive, the project's feasibility is demonstrated by not affect grain production for human consumption and damage to forests or jungles.

Salicornia (scorpiurus of the marshes)

Salicornia ramosissima

Oil-rich plant that grows in desert areas and irrigated with sea water, largely complies with the principles of second-generation biofuels.

is halophyte (salt tolerant) to develop conditions to survive in high saline conditions, making it possible to grow it in areas today considered unsuitable for any crop. Salicornia absorbs the water salinity and soil, improving soil quality.

Its fruit is small, succulent (thick walls to allow storage of water) and contains a single highly edible seeds, both cooked and raw ashes have been a source of soda (sodium carbonate) for the glass industry and soap. It has a high oil yield per hectare.

grown in Sonora to extract and biodiesel fuels for aircraft engines. It can occur in Baja California and Tamaulipas . In Ensenada, Baja California is a gourmet ingredient fashion.

Camelina Camelina sativa

annual oilseed crop grown in Europe since the Bronze Age, the seed contains between 33 and 42% oil that has been used in oil lamps and as food.

Argentina is experiencing in the production of biodiesel from Camelina and Salicornia , eventually be used microalgae and soybean oil.


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